UPVC WINDOW MAKING
The Definitive Guide in 2021
This is the definitive guide to uPVC window making.
In this new guide you’ll learn:
- how to cut uPVC window profile
- how to weld uPVC window profile
- cleaning the uPVC window corner
Let’s get started.
uPVC Window Making Contents
uPVC Profile Cutting
In Chapter 1 I’ll show you
- how to cut normal uPVC profile
- how to cut mullion
- the way to cut v shape
- cutting length calculation
In the uPVC window making process, the first step is the cutting uPVC window frame.
The accuracy of the cutting uPVC window frame has a very important effect on the quality of the uPVC windows and doors.
To ensure good performance of the uPVC window, we should follow some processing operations and standard requirements strictly. And also use the right uPVC window door machine.
1. The reference size for uPVC window making
What size should we reference for the uPVC windows? Normally we have three mainly references:
- Firstly, Design drawings
- Secondly, Order requirements
- Thirdly, the hole size on the wall which installing the uPVC windows and doors.
2. Frame and sash cutting
>>> Which type of cutting machines do we need?
>>> uPVC Profile Cutting
Firstly, as one of the uPVC windows manufacturers, we should according to the window size and processing requirements to cut the uPVC profiles.
Meanwhile, we should also notice that if the double head saw 06 includes the welding allowance.
If it has a welding allowance, we should cut the uPVC profiles directly.
If the machine does not have a welding allowance, we should add the welding allowance during cutting uPVC section.
In addition, normally the welding allowance is 3mm for each end.
Please note that our Moxisys uPVC cutter does not include the welding allowance for the uPVC section.
>>> Case study
uPVC windows designs size 1200mmX1500mm.
The machine do not include welding allowance.
So cutting upvc window frame should according to the below upvc window profile sizes:
When cutting upvc window frame, we should keep the saw blade and operation platform dry and clean. Otherwise it will affect the after-processing performance.
After cutting upvc window frame, we should check the first piece right now. And talk some samples from the cutting PVC profile.
All the parts must meet the following technical requirements:
- Firstly, uPVC section profile length tolerance ±0.5mm.
- Secondly, each ending angle tolerance ±0.5°.
- Thirdly, cutting surface and the angle of uPVC section should not affect the welding quality.
- And the last, the after-cutting surface should keep dry and clean.
3. Mullion cutting
>>> Which type of cutting machines do we need?
>>> uPVC Profile Cutting
According to the uPVC window design size to cut the mullion.
After that cutting, we should also check the first piece. At the same time, we should also take some samples to check.
Let’s take a example to explain.
>>> Case Study
Take Moxisys 60 casement frame profile MBS-60ZTD for example.
All the cutting parts also must meet the following technical requirements:
- Firstly, make sure after the first cutting, the ending angle is 45 degrees, tolerance is ±0.5°.
- Secondly, make sure after the second cutting the ending angle is 90 degrees and tolerance±0.5°.
- The tolerance between ending tip and the centerline is ±0.5mm
- The mullion length should also meet design requirements and the tolerance ±0.5mm
- Profile cutting surface and the angle should also not affect the welding quality.
- Meanwhile, the welding surface should keep dry and clean.
4. The V-shape cutting
>>> Which type of cutting machines do we need?
Normally we use one of upvc profile cutting machine, the v notch cutting saw to cut the V-shape profile.
>>> uPVC Profile Cutting
During cutting the v shape profile, we should much care for the depth on the small surface.
The depth equals the half-width of the mullion profile small surface minus the welding allowance.
After that cutting, we should check the first piece. And take some samples to check.
Let’s see the example below.
>>> Case Study
Take Moxisys 60 casement frame profile and mullion for example.
Normally V shape on the mullion small surface, In addition, the depth is 36/2-3=15mm
In addition, all the cutting parts must meet the following requirements:
- After that cutting, the v shape depth tolerance is ±0.5mm.
- The surface of profile cutting and the angle should not affect the welding quality.
- The welding surface should also keep dry and clean.
5. The Calculation Case Study
The calculation mainly considers three factors:
- the uPVC window dimensions
- the lapping size between frame and sash.
- the welding allowance.
And according to the above data to calculate the cutting size.
>>> Casement uPVC Window Calculation
What is the overlap size between frame and sash?
When we put frame and sash together, there have some parts overlapping.
This part we called overlap size. And normally this size ≥8mm.
Take Moxisys 60 series casement profile for example.
|Frame height||Design Height + 3×2||2 pcs|
|Frame width||Design Width + 3×2||2 pcs|
|Mullion height||Design Height +(mullion profile big surface-frame profile big surface) x2 + 3×2||1 pcs|
|Sash height||Design Height/2 – (frame profile small surface – overlap size)
– (mullion profile small surface/2-overlap size) +3×2
|Sash width||Design Width – (frame profile small surface – overlap size) x2+3×2||4 pcs|
Note: Above calculation of upvc window profile sizes just for your reference.
Because the uPVC casement window profile has many series, and the mullion section size also different.
So in the mullion cutting processing, we should also according to the profile do some changes accordingly.
>>> Sliding uPVC Window Calculation
In this part, We set the overlap size is 8mm.
Take Moxisys 80 sliding series for example.
|Frame height||Design Height + 3×2||2 pcs|
|Frame width||Design Width + 3×2||2 pcs|
|Sash height||Design Height – (frame height – lapping size) x2+3×2||4 pcs|
|Sash width||Design Width/2 – (frame height – lapping size) – (sash profile big surface -interlock thickness) /2 +3×2||4 pcs|
Drainage and Pressure Balance Holes Drilling
In Chapter 2 I’ll show you
- what is the size of these holes?
- where should we make the water slot holes?
- how many drainage and balance holes should we make?
- and more.
So if you want to all these questions, and this chapter is for you.
uPVC windows and doors should have good performance for the water tightness.
This is to say that we must make drainage to let the water go outside. Meanwhile, we must make a pressure balance hole on the frame to make sure water goes outside smoothly.
According to the location and function, the holes include inside drainage holes, inside pressure balance holes and outside drainage holes, outside pressure balance holes.
1. which kind of holes should we make?
Normally we should according to some parameters to make the holes.
The size of the drainage hole and pressure balance hole please check the below information.
Drainage hole dimension ΦxL 5mm X 30mm
Pressure balance holes dimension ΦxL 4.5mm X 30mm
2. which kind of uPVC machines we use?
To make this kind of drainage holes and pressure balance holes, we have many different ways.
But normally we use the water slot machine to make. This machine has 2 or 3 heads. So it could finish the water slot process at one time.
3. where and how many holes should we make?
In the uPVC window manufacturing process, we should know clearly where should we make the water slot and balance holes. And how many?
Before we start that, we should know where we should not make the holes.
>>> Some points we must notice
Do not make the drainage hole and reinforcement steel hole connected.
If this happens rainwater will go inside the main cavity. The reinforcement steel will be got rusted.
The location of the drainage holes should be at the lowest position of the drainage cavity.
This could prevent water accumulation inside the profile.
Inside drainage hole and outside drainage hole should have some distances. Please check the below picture.
We offen use a drainage cap to cover the slot as decoration.
>>> The situation must have drainage holes and pressure balance holes
- Firstly, the uPVC window exterior should have a drainage
- Secondly, the down frame of the exterior window door should have inside and outside the drainage hole.
- The up frame should have a pressure balance hole and inside the profile should also have a balance hole.
>>> The quantity and location of the drainage holes
- Firstly, if the downside frame length ≤700mm,
make 1 drainage hole in the frame center.
- Secondly, if the down frame length between 700mm and 1800mm,
make 2 drainage holes. The position is 1/4 length from each ending side.
- Moreover, if the down frame length ≥ 1800mm,
makes 3 drainage holes. One in the frame center. And the other two at the 1/6 length from each ending side.
- Generally speaking, each outside drainage should also have corresponding inner drainage.
- The position and quantity of the drainage holes should also accord the local weather and rainfall. In the heavy rainfall area, the quantity could be more, and dimension also could be bigger.
- Each frame or sash which has the glass installed should also have one or more pressure balance holes at the window door outer up frame.
Hardware Installation Slot Drilling
In Chapter 3 I’ll show you
- how to make the hardware installation slot?
- which kind of hardware installation slot we should make?
Let’s get start.
In the uPVC window making process, we should make some hardware installation slot one the sash profile.
Here normally we make these slots on the casement sash profiles.
1. how to make the hardware installation slot.
2. which kind of hardware installation slot we should make?
Normally we make the lock hole, handle hole and slot.
We could make these through the template on the machines.
For different hardware, the slot size may be different. In this way, we also need to change the drilling bit accordingly.
Moxisys machine could hold the 5mm, 8mm, 10mm, and 12mm
When we processing the hole which installs the handle, we should also notice the middle hole use drilling bit Φ12mm. Meanwhile, the other two holes use Φ10mm. Please be sure not use the wrong dimension.
We should also keep the hole in the right position. And make sure they are smooth, burr-free. This will be a benefit for the hardware installation.
Reinforcement Steel Cutting and Installation
In Chapter 4 I’ll show you
- The function of the reinforcement steel
- some technical requirements for the reinforcement steel
- what is the installation principles
- how to install the reinforcement steel
1. The function of the reinforcement steel
- Firstly, improve the rigidity and strength of uPVC windows and doors.
- Secondly, prevent profile deformation.
- Moreover, make the hardware installation more solid.
2. The technical requirement for the reinforcement steel
1) Material and Thickness
Made by the cold rolling Q235 steel strip.
The surface is also treated by anti-corrosion or zinc plating to prevent corrosion.
Normally the thickness is 1.2mm, 1.5mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm, 3.0mm.
The suggestion using thickness is ≥1.5mm.
Moreover, the thickness of the reinforcement should also accord the window door size, location to choose.
2) The reinforcement steel size and shape
This reinforcement steel is installed inside the profile’s main cavity.
The matching gap between the reinforcement steel and uPVC profiles‘ main cavity is 1±0.5mm.
This gap makes installation easier to restore after the window pressure.
Meanwhile, reinforcement steel dimension tolerance is ±0.1~0.5mm.
And the shape should according to the profile cavity, type and hardware installation to design.
Normally they have below shape.
3) The reinforcement steel appearance
- Firstly, the inside and outside surface should smooth. The cracks, delamination and lap welding defects are not allowed.
- secondly, the both ends of the reinforcement steel cutting inclination should less than 7 degree. It should be smooth and burr-free.
3. Installation principles
Suggest all the profile install the reinforcement steel.
Some situations below must install reinforcement steel.
- After window pressure calculation, the frame, sash, and mullion could not reach the security value.
- If using self-drilling screw to fix the hardware in frame, sash and mullion, we must use the reinforcement steel. This could ensure the necessary fastness of the hardware.
4. Reinforcement steel cutting
It should use belt saw, toothless saw to cutting.
Both ends cutting angle suggests 45 degrees and tolerance ±1°.
The minimum vertical distance from the steel to the profile end is 5~10mm. this could ensure the hardware fixed on the steel. Enhance the hardware fastness.
After that cutting, it must be corrected. Keep the ends burr-free.
The straightness accuracy should less than 1.5mm for each linear meter.
Twisting degree should also less than 1 degree.
Angular deviation tolerance ±1.5°.
Inside radius is not more that 1.4-time thickness.
5. Reinforcement steel installation
- Firstly, If this not affect the welding, it could be inserted in advance.
- Secondly, for 十type or T type, after welding this part then insert steel
We should also use self-tapping screw and self-drilling screw. Core-pulling rivets are prohibited.
The screw for each length steel fastness should more than 3pcs.
Meanwhile the distance between two screws ≤300mm. The distance between the screw and profile end should also ≤100mm. After that fixed, the steel should not be loose.
After that inserting the steel, we should ensure the profile cavity no scratches, deformation and also not affect the hardware installation.
Moreover, if the steel size not match the profile cavity, we should not insert the steel by force.
uPVC Window Making - Profile Welding
Now it’s time to learn one of the most important parts in uPVC window making. In Chapter 5 I’ll show you
- welding sequence
- some welding parameters
- and lots more
Let’s get start.
1. Which kind of machine do we use?
We should choose the machine according to different process program.
If we want to make a different angle window, we need variable angle single head welding machine.
If we only make the regular window frame, we could choose a double head welding machine, three head welding machine, and four head welding machine. These machines also could make the mullion welding also. No need to buy any other “mullion only” machine.
If we need more high efficiency we could use CNC four point welding machine.
For the uPVC window colors, we could use normal welding machine or seamless welding machine.
2. Welding sequence
For some simple uPVC windows and doors, we could know clearly the welding sequence, or no need to draw.
But in the uPVC window making process, for some complex windows, before welding, we should decide the welding sequence according to the window design.
If the window does not has division, we could use four corner welding machines. Welding the frame and sash one time. If the mullion has many divisions, we should weld the mullion then frame. Please check below.
3. Welding parameter
These parameters affect the window door quality. Especially affect the welding corner intensity.
So, we should formulate and control the welding parameter strictly.
The main welding parameters as follows:
|Clamping pressure:||0.4MPa – 0.6MPa|
|Welding pressure:||0.3MPa – 0.4MPa|
|Joint pressure:||0.4MPa – 0.5MPa|
|Welding time:||20s – 30s|
|Joint time:||25s – 35s|
Above parameters are very basic. Different machine, different condition and different profile, the parameter should change accordingly.
We should follow the welding machine instruction. Or find the best welding parameter through the test by us.
We could adjust the relative parameters according to the below steps:
1) Adjust the welding temperature within 240℃-270℃. Each time change 1-2℃. We could decide the temperature through the welding surface. Normally the welding surface is light yellow.
2) After decided the welding temperature, then adjust the welding time and joint time accordingly.
3) Adjust the clamping pressure within 0.4MPa – 0.6MPa, and ensure the profile not has deformation and displacement. Welding pressure adjusting keeps the welding end surface smooth.
Temperature, time and pressure are the very important parameters. In the production, we should according different situation to do some test and adjustment. Make these three parameters best match to keep the welding quality.
4. Preparing before welding
Before welding, we should do some preparations:
1) Check the welding machine’s power, pressure. And every parameter within the right work scope. Preheat 20-30minutes after power on.
2) Keep the environment temperature above 18℃. The upvc profiles in the same condition at least 24h. This way will lower the temperature gradient between profile and heating temperature. It will help increase the welding intensity.
3) According different profile choose the right welding time, temperature and pressure.
4) Mark the relative welding profile and put in the assigned position. Please notice the position of installation holes, hinge, handle and drainage holes to avoid the wrong welding.
5) Please not make the gasket, wool strip and profile film welded.
5. Welding Notice
In the upvc window frame welding, we should notice some items as below:
- During welding, we must ensure the visible welding surface and the welding plate orthogonal. Tolerance ±0.5°.
- Keep the welding surface clean. This can avoid the dark line in the welding corner.
- Make sure the angle within 45°±0.5° between the guide board and the positioning plate.
- After fame and sash welding, the size must fulfill the dimension requirement.
- In bulk production, we must check the first finished product carefully. And take some samples to check.
- In small quantity and single piece production, we should check all the finished products.
uPVC windows tolerance
- The diagonal line of the window frame and sash should less than 3.0mm.
- Mullion welding must ensure the two welding parts’ angle within 90°±0.5°.
- After welding, same profile welding parts surface flatness ≤0.5mm. different profile welding parts surface flatness ≤0.8mm
- After welding please ensure the main profile welding corner intensity and do some test regularly.
6. welding mould for profile
We should make the matched welding mould for profile according different uPVC profiles.
The welding mould normally lowers 0.5mm-1.0mm than the profiles.
Because the after-cutting profile angle is 45 degrees with a sharp corner. If not use welding mould, the sharp corner will defamation under the pressure.
The overlap bottom will bigger. The welding surface stress will be maldistribution per unit area. And this will affect the welding quality. Below is the picture for your reference.
7. some attention for welding machines
1) Please check the welding machine regularly. Checking whether the positioning crew loose or not. This will ensure the welding parameter has the right positioning.
2) The welding Teflon paper must on the heating plate tightly.
3) Keep the Teflon paper clean. Every 10 times clean once. And after 1000 times welding, we should change it.
4) Keep the machine away from the windy place. Because this will affect the welding plate temperature.
5) After each time welding, we should interval some time let the temperature recover to the set point.
6) Not change the welding machine operator. This will be helpful for the welding quality.
Window Frame Corner Cleaning
In Chapter 6 I’ll show you
- at which situation we must need to clean?
- how to clean the welding tumor?
- some attentions need to know
After that welding, the welding surface will have a welding tumor.
To avoid the window function and beauty, we need to clean the corner.
For the casement window, the welding tumor will affect the leakproofness between the window frame and window sash.
For the sliding window, the welding tumor will affect the fixable sliding.
1. the below situation must clean the welding tumor
- Firstly, the frame, sash, and division profile welding tumor which exposed outside must be cleaned. To avoid the beauty, leakproofness and relevant parts cooperation.
- Secondly, The four sharp corners must be cleaned. To avoid the affection of window installation and assembling. Also, to avoid the beauty and harmful to arms during opening and closing.
- Moreover, all the welding tumor which affect the beauty and sealing strip installation must be cleaned.
2. how to clean the welding tumor
There have different ways to do this job. Among all upvc window machines, normally we use the corner cleaning machines to do this.
There are several uPVC window cleaner as below:
CNC corner cleaning machine with 5 cutters could use to cleaning the upside, downside, outside vertical and inner automatically.
3. corner cleaning parameter
After that cleaning, if the surface has a light slot, its depth must ≤0.3mm. outer vertical corner beveling (3-5)mm x45°
4. some attentions
- Firstly, it is better to clean welding tumor before the corner completely cooling.
At this moment, the profile inside the molecular structure tends to be stable and not completely harden.
And this neither affect welding corner intensity nor occur corner collapse phenomena.
- Secondly, when using a CNC corner cleaning machine or manual cleaning machine, please ensure the blade in the right angle and sharp.
- Moreover, when process the co-extruded profile, please do some change accordingly for the slot depth.
- Meanwhile, during cleaning, prohibit leaving any lap on the component.
Sealing Strip Installation
In Chapter 7 I’ll show you
- which kind of sealing strip do we need?
- how to use it?
- some attention
- and more.
Let’s get start
To ensure the good sealing performance of uPVC windows and doors, it is also necessary to install sealing strips.
uPVC window seals include sealing rubber strip and sealing wool strip. Sealing rubber strip includes frame and sash sealing rubber strip, and also glass sealing rubber strip.
The sealing wool strip mainly used on the sliding window and door.
When selecting the sealing strip, please also notice the section shape, size, and material.
It must also meet the standard requirement. The performance is reliable, and the installation is convenient.
1. Sealing rubber strip
1) glass sealing rubber strip
we call this rubber strip as K shape sealing rubber strip.
It is mainly used on the glazing bead to hold the glass. Please check below picture.
2) frame and sash sealing rubber strip
we call this rubber strip O shape sealing rubber strip.
It is mainly used on the frame and sash fit-gap.
Normally the fit-gap between frame and sash is 3-5mm.
So, when we choose the uPVC windows gasket, we must notice the dimension. But not lots of profile have the co-extruded rubber. There is not have the specially limited for this.
3) Rubber strip installation attention
- Firstly, each frame, the sealing rubber strip ends should at the middle of up border frame. Every corner, the rubber strip should cut a gap, and make the strip smooth at the 90-degree corner. And the gap should not be cut through.
- Secondly, during installation, the rubber strip starts from the upper frame, use roller push the strip into the relevant groove.
- At the ends, we should keep some margin to avoid the rubber strip shrinking.
- After installation, the rubber strip should not out of the groove.
In the same component, we could also not install more than one-piece rubber strip.
2. Sealing wool strip
1) how to choose wool strip
- Firstly, the wool should be uniform, dense, straight and cutting flat. We must avoid the lack wool and uneven phenomenon.
- Secondly, the bottom plate should straight and smooth without cracks, bubbles, and weak adhesion.
- Thirdly, oil or dirty is not allowed.
- Moreover, the wool has passed silicification processing. This will reduce the sliding friction force. At the same time, this will improve the hydrophobicity and water-resistance.
- Additionally, the wool should be treated with UV protection to extend life.
- Lately, according to the groove and fit clearance to choose the wool strip.
2) the function of wool strip
Sealing wool strip mainly used for sliding window and door. Normally install in the sliding sash.
Meanwhile, the other application for sealing wool strip:
- Spring door
- Screen sash
3) Installation attention
- Firstly, wool strip dimension should not too big. If so, the installation is difficulty and sliding is not flexible.
- Secondly, after the installation, the wool strip should not off the groove.
- Thirdly, some components could not install more than one piece, similar as the above sealing rubber.
In Chapter 8 I’ll show you
- the normal standards for hardware installation.
- which uPVC window fittings should install on the casement window?
- and for the sliding window?
and lots more.
We choose hardware accessories according to the uPVC window profile structure. As a good uPVC window manufacturer, using the high-quality uPVC window fittings is very important.
During installation, the uPVC window accessories should match the profile hardware installation groove.
Now Moxisys uPVC profiles hardware installation grooves adopt Europe 12/20-9 series standard.
That means the hardware activity space is 12mm. the overlap edge is 20mm. and after that installation, the distance between hardware center line and frame small surface is 9mm. below is a picture for your reference.
1. casement window hardware introduction
1) uPVC window hinges
Bolt hinges consist of axle seat and axle sleeve.
Linkage type hinges consist of link rods. Normally it has four-link rods hinges and five-link rods hinges.
Below is two type of uPVC window hinges, please check.
The uPVC window hinges are used to make the frame and sash cooperate well, and bear the sash weight and the wind pressure load.
These two type of hinges opening and closing modality is also different.
The bolt hinges use axle rotation to open the window.
Meanwhile, linkage-type hinges use the link rods rotating and sliding to open the window.
Both types of hinges have advantages and disadvantages.
The bolt hinges construction is simple, price lower, installation and repair easier, and at the same time, bearing capacity strong. But this type of window glass cleaning is a difficulty.
The leakage type bearing capacity is weak. But glass cleaning is easier.
- Firstly, the hinge pin should use carbon steel.
- Secondly, the axle sleeve and block shot should use nylon.
- Thirdly, the surface coating should use polyester powder.
- Moreover, the sprayed surface should be uniform. Should not have defects such as bubbles, sagging, falling off and embossed lacquer.
- The oxide surface should be uniformity. Should not have defects such as light yellow, grinning and scorch.
2) uPVC window handles
uPVC window handles are mainly used for opening and closing the window and door.
It also has lock and sealing function.
From the opening modality, handles include outward opening handle and inward opening handle.
- Firstly, according to the uPVC window designs to choose.
- Secondly, the surface coating should use polyester powder.
- Thirdly, the sprayed surface should be uniform. Should not have defects such as bubbles, sagging, falling off and embossed lacquer.
- Moreover, the oxide surface should be uniformity. Should not have defects such as light yellow, grinning and scorch.
3) uPVC window transmission rod
>>> Consist and category
Transmission rod is used for window door multi points lockup through handle rotation.
It consists of lock pillar, gear, support, moving rod, fixed rod and lockset.
Transmission rod including sliding transmission rod and casement transmission rod.
- According to the window door type.
- The surface should smooth and burr-free. The coated should be uniform. Should not have defects such as light yellow, grinning and scorch.
- It should not have distortion. The fixed rod and moving rod bending tolerance should less than 0.5mm/m.
- The rivet connection should be fastness and reliable. The moving rod should be flexible and not stuck.
2. sliding window hardware introduction
There have variety hardware using in uPVC window sliding series.
But the main hardware are roller, crescent lock, anti-collision board, buffer block, windbreak bridge, and transmission rod.
We should choose the hardware according to the profile type.
1) uPVC window rollers
Support the window sash or door sash weight. And transport the weight to the frame.
To move a window sash or door sash along with the frame track by its own rolling.
>>> Consist and category
The roller consists of wheel frame, wheel body and axle. The wheel surface includes flat and groove type.
- Firstly, the wheel frame should not be deformation, deflection. The coated should be uniformity. Should not have defects such as light yellow, grinning and scorch.
- Secondly, the wheel body surface should smooth. Should not have defects such as bubbles, cracks and uneven.
- Thirdly, Axle should at the horizontal position.
- Moreover, the sash weight must within the roller load ability. The sash weight includes the sash frame, glazing bead, glass, and reinforcement steel. Normally use two rollers as calculation.
The roller size should match the installation groove size.
According to the overlap between frame and sash to choose the relevant rollers.
2) uPVC window locks
>>> Consist and function
Crescent lock is a device which lock the two sliding sashes through the rotate handle.
It consists of rotate handle, lock hook and pedestal.
Firstly, the coated surface should smooth. Should not have the defects such as bubbles, cracks and uneven.
Secondly, the cladding should be uniformity. Should not have defects such as light yellow, grinning and scorch.
Normally, the crescent lock is installed in the sash center.
Lock seat at one sash. And lock hook at the other sash. Rotate the handle to open and close.
3) other uPVC window fittings
>>> windbreak bridge
Because the two sashes have one sash frame overlapping.
There must have space at the frame bottom groove. This space makes ventilation and affect the leakproofness.
So, at this part, the upper frame and down frame should install windbreak bride to keep the leekproofness.
On the windbreak bridge have at least two sealing wool strips. This neither affect the sliding window sealing performance nor affect the sliding flexible.
>>> buffer block
According upvc window production manual, this is mainly used inside the sash groove.
This can also avoid the violent collision between the frame and sash.
It could also control the overlap for the frame and sash.
It made of rubber. And each side installs 2 pieces.
The distance between buffer block and ends of sash is 100-150mm.
>>> anti-collision board
This is mainly used on the down frame ends. Each end installs one. To avoid the violent collision.
In Chapter 9 I’ll show you
- how to cut glazing bead?
- which kind of glass do we need?
- how to make the insulating glass?
- and lots more.
Let’s get start.
In the uPVC window making process, the glass installation also very important.
1. glazing bead cutting
1) how do we cut the glazing bead?
2) some parameters about glazing bead?
According to the frame and sash glazing groove to cut the glazing bead.
The angle tolerance should within 45°±0.5°
Meanwhile, for a special shaped window and arch window, the glazing bead angle is half of the angle which the adjacent two components. The tolerance ±0.5°.
In order to prevent the collision between the welding nodules and the glazing bead. The glazing bead should also cut a inlay angle. And its length is 3-4 mm. please check below picture.
2. Glass cutting
1) Glass category
The glass has float glass, tempered glass, and laminated glass.
The thickness we always use is 3-6mm, 8mm, 10mm, and 12mm.
we could also make single glass, double glass, and insulating glass.
According to gas inside the insulating glass, glass classifies normal air type glass and inert gas glass.
According to the structure, the glass classifies double insulating glass and triple insulating glass.
2) Insulating glass fabrication
>>> Glass selection
We could also use clear glass, laminate glass, tempered glass, Low-e glass, patterned glass and so on.
Do not suggest use original plate glass.
>>> Some reference parameters
>>> Glass washing
- Firstly, checking water quality regularly. Change the water and clean filter unit are timely to keep the water clean.
- Secondly, check the water heater regularly. And please control the washing temperature around 65℃.
- Moreover, check water sprinkler and the brush regularly. Keep the water stable. The pressure not too big.
>>> Desiccant selection and loading
And some items should also be noted as below.
- Firstly, the desiccant must keep in the dry environment.
- Secondly, during loading desiccant into the aluminum bar, please leave some space for expansion and corner connector. Normally loading 70%.
- Moreover, after loading the desiccant into aluminum bar, please keep them clean. Avoiding oil and dust.
>>> Butyl coating
The butyl is the first sealing. It concerns many performances for the window and glass. Please noted below.
- Firstly, the thickness is 0.75mm±05mm for each side.
- Secondly, the coating thickness, the width should be uniform, continuously, no break and no bubbles.
- Thirdly, the butyl layup should be gapless.
>>> Two component sealant sealing
After that sealing, keep the glass clean and the glue uniform.
3) Glass cutting
>>> What machines do we use?
>>> Other Attentions
Before cutting please check the glass quality. It should be no scratch, no bubbles.
After that cutting the glass edge should be trim, no hackly and no gap.
Suggest doing some polish. This will prevent the glass broken during manufacture, transportation and usage.
3. Glass installation
- Firstly, keep environment temperature ≥15℃.
- Secondly, the glass should not touch the profile directly. We should also use some glass cushion block on the profile glass groove.
- Thirdly, when installing the glazing bead, install the short glazing bead first and then the long glazing bead.
At same time use the rubber hammer knock the glazing bead. Wooden hammer, hard plastic, and metal hammer are prohibited.
- After that installing glazing bead, the layup space should within 0.3-1mm. and each side should use a completely glazing bead.
- When using hammer knock the glazing bead, we should start from the ends then middle part.
The knock direction should keep vertical on the profile which install glazing bead.
4. Glass Cushion block
We must use cushion block between glass and profile.
Cushion block have two types. One is called load-bearing cushion block and position cushion block.
The cushion block should also be antiseptic and not easily deformable.
Different window doors the cushion block quantity and position are also different.
Meanwhile, For sliding window, the cushion block position should at the top of roller.
Below is a picture for your reference.
Finished Product Quality Inspection
In Chapter 10 I’ll show you
- how to inspect the finished window?
- some inspect rules?
- 14 checklist before leaving the factory
Let’s get start.
As a good uPVC window supplier, we need to check the quality of our uPVC windows and doors before leave our factory.
1. Profile and accessories inspection
2. Procedure and inspection of the finished product
1) Procedure inspection
The main procedure includes profile cutting, welding, hardware installation, glass installation. The procedure control affects the window door performance directly. We should also check the first product strictly in every procedure. And sampling according to the ratio.
We should seriously inspect the below items:
- Firstly, the cutting size, angle, v shape position, in the cutting procedure.
- Secondly, the welding parameter, intensity, size after welding in the welding procedure.
- Thirdly, the hardware quantity, position, performance in the hardware installation procedure.
- Moreover, the cushion block, gap for glazing bead in the glass installation procedure.
2) The finished product inspection
There also have 14 items that need to be inspected before leaving the factory.
- Corner welding intensity
- Reinforcement steel installation
- Hardware installation
- Opening and closing strength for lock and handle
- Opening and closing strength for the sash
- Overall dimension deviation
- Diagonal deviation
- Nearby component gap
- Nearby component flatness
- Frame and sash gap
- Frame and sash overlap
- Sealing strip installation
- Glazing bed installation
- Window door appearance
Packaging Warehousing and Transportation
In Chapter 11 I’ll show you
- how to packing?
- some notice in warehouse
- transportation rules
1. how to packing?
In order to avoid being soiled, scratched and damaged in the process of transportation and installation.
we must also choose non-corrosive soft materials to pack the qualified windows and doors.
The windows doors should be placed in ventilated, rainproof, dry, flat and pollution-free places.
Outdoors storage is not allowed.
Do not let them contact with corrosive substances.
All the windows doors should be also placed vertically according to the installation direction. And the vertical angle should not less than 70°.
Stack flat and directly on the ground are not allowed.
The bottom pad height should not be less than 50mm.
The storage environment temperature should less than 50℃.
The distance between windows and the heat source should be not less than 1m.
The critical thing is to avoid the damage when loading and unloading the windows doors as well as in the transport process.
We should load and unload the window door lightly. Do not put and throw violently.
If lifting win-doors, we should find a strong and stable strength point and put some non-metallic and soft material on it. Do not allow insert the lever between sash and frame during lifting.
During transportation, if the road not flat or emergency brake, the win-door, and glass will be easily broken.
So, it is very important for putting win-doors orderly in the carriage.
When loading windows and doors. Please pay attention to the following items.
- Fastness to prevent moving and shaking.
- Avoid the hardware touch with glass.
- Use soft material to separate uPVC windows.
- Put vertically and orderly. Do not flat stack.
uPVC Window Installation
In Chapter 12 I’ll show you
- how to position the window?
- two ways fixed on the wall
- some notice we need to know.
- lots more
Let’s get started.
The uPVC window installation normally after the building wall wet work and harden.
If need installation before wet work, we must take protective measures.
The hole which installs the windows should be vertical and horizontal.
The installation temperature should higher than 5℃.
Below is the hole size tolerance in our uPVC window installation guide for your reference.
1. Pre-construction preparation
As a good uPVC window installer, we need do some preparation before uPVC window installation.
Firstly, Prepare window doors accessories, uPVC window fitting tools.
Secondly, After uPVC windows and doors reach the construction sites, put them in a reasonable place.
It should not directly touch the ground. Put some pad under them.
And it should be vertical and the angle ≥70°. And take some anti-dump measures also.
Thirdly, Storage temperature should be less than 50℃.
The distance between the win-door and heat source should more than 1m.
when storage under 0℃., we should put them 24h indoors before installation.
Moreover, Before installer upvc windows, mark the installation requirements.
2. how to make uPVC window fixing on the wall?
Normally there has two ways for uPVC window fixing. One is stator fixing and the other is explosion screw fixing.
>>> Stator fixing
Fixed one side in the frame and the other side in the wall.
And different wall needs different fixing methods. Be low is two type upvc window fixing details.
For concrete wall or concrete lintel, use nail fixes the stator.
On the glued logs of the aerated concrete wall, use wooden bolts to fix.
Please check below picture for your reference.
Selecting and using stator should follow some items below:
Firstly, It should be surface smoothly. Should not have crack, burr and mechanical damage.
Secondly, The coating should uniform. Should not have defects such as bubbles, wave, and grinning.
Thirdly, The thickness of the stator should less than 1.5mm. the width should more than 20mm.
Moreover, The stator installation hole diameter is 5mm.
>>> Explosion screw fixing
Install uPVC windows frame directly in the wall or ground by explosion screw.
Please also check the below picture about the uPVC windows installation screw fix.
When using explosion screw, the hole must do some anti-water process. Avoid rain water though the down frame goes inside the cavity which have reinforcement steel.
If so, it may be got rusted. Normally for the down frame not use explosion screw.
>>>The stator and explosion screw position
During the uPVC window installation, for stator using bit which diameter Φ2mm to make the hole. Screw dimension M4x20.
The distance from the corner, mullion to the stator and explosion screw should within 150-200mm.
The distance between each stator or explosion should ≤600mm.
3. window positioning and fixing
When uPVC window installers install uPVC windows in the wall hole, the window and wall hole midcourt line should also align.
The window up-down frame and mullion symmetric position should use a wooden pad to fix. And this will position and fix the window temporarily.
Then adjust the perpendicularity, levelness and squareness. Make them in the tolerance range.
When fixing uPVC windows, normally fix up frame firstly, and then the two sides frame.
If have the pre-buried iron in the wall, please adopt welding method to fix. And the welding part should do anti-corrosion treatment. It could also adopt the nail fixed.
4. combination window installation
For the long windows which combined by several small windows, it should from one side to the other side install.
The high windows which combined by several small windows should from the bottom to the up install.
It should use the reinforcement connection profile. And bury the reinforcement steel inside the wall.
This will increase the anti-wind pressure intensity.
After uPVC installation, the gap between window and wall hole should fill the PU foam.
During filling, please remove the package. This will keep the good combination of the windows and filling material.
Please do not blockage the drainage holes.
So that’s it for my guide to uPVC window making in 2021.
From here you could learn how to make upvc windows.
I hope you found this uPVC window making guide helpful.
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